Augmenting long-term ecosystem-atmosphere observations with multidisciplinary intensive campaigns aims at
closing gaps in spatial and temporal scales of observation for energy- and biogeochemical cycling,
and at stimulating collaborative research.

News

Next The structure of the next ScaleX Campaign — to take place in 2019 — was first discussed during the TERENO Int'l Conference, Berlin, Oct 2018.

Workshops: The most recent ScaleX Workshop took place on 29—30 Mar 2017 at KIT IMK/IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen. A ScaleX Workshop on UAVs took place on 8—9 Dec 2016, at U Augsburg/ISSE.

Contributions: 2017 TERENO Workshop PDF, EGU General Assembly 2017, 97th AMS Annual Meeting, AGU Fall Meeting 2016 & 2017, Fach- und Fortbildungstagung für Meteorologie DACH 2016, and the SPIE Conference 2016. Search meeting programmes for “ScaleX”.

Other: TERENO Newsletter 2017 PDF, Purdue University, Max Plank Institute BGC-Jena, and local media.

Campaigns

A scale expansion is achieved by linking observations of surface fluxes and surface properties to remotely sensed and airborne observations of atmospheric properties, as well as to process models up to the meso-scale. Topics were identified for each campaign and organised as voluntary Work Packages (WPs).

  • WP1: The impact of complex terrain on biosphere—atmosphere exchange processes
  • WP2: The nocturnal boundary layer: vertical transport, trace gas distribution and budget
  • WP3: Patterns of precipitation and soil moisture from site to regional scale
  • WP4: Regional water and energy budgets and balances analysis by modeling and observation in the catchments of Rott and Ammer
  • WP5: Distributed modeling of biosphere—atmosphere GHG exchange

The campaign at TERENO observatory Fendt involved collaborators and (inter-)national partners from academia and industry.

The impact of complex terrain on biosphere—atmosphere exchange processes
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Photo: M Zeeman

A key part of the observatory; micrometeorological observation of atmospheric exchange (TERENO/ICOS).

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Photo: M Zeeman

Ground-based remote sensing; observation of motion in the atmospheric boundary layer.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Collaborative study on source-sink relationships, advection, weak-turbulent motion (U Innsbruck/KIT).

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Photo: M Zeeman

High-resolution temperature (DTS) and wind field observations for model development.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Cross-comparison; different sensing techniques as well as multiple sensor models (GWU Group/KIT).

The nocturnal boundary layer: vertical transport, trace gas distribution and budget
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Photo: R Grant

Collaborative study on UAV-based observation of GHG exchange (U Purdue/MPI-BGC).

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Photo: M Zeeman

Observation of wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary-layer.

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Photo: L Golston

Methane concentration surveys in space and time help access emission sources (Princeton/KIT).

Patterns of precipitation and soil moisture from site to regional scale

WP4: Regional water and energy budgets and balances analysis by modeling and observation in the catchments of Rott and Ammer
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Photo: M Zeeman

Extended range UAV soundings fill a gap for validation of mesoscale models.

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Photo: H Vogelmann

Development of remote sensing by lidar; temperature, aerosole and water content (ATMONSYS).

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Photo: A Angerer

Autonomous multi-platform sensor deployment for investigation of vertical and horizontal temperature profiles.

Distributed modeling of biosphere—atmosphere GHG exchange
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Photo: M Zeeman

Spatial observation of GHGs and isotopic tracer signals intended to link fluxes to processes.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Inter-comparison of different techniques and systems for observation of GHG exchange.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Continuous observation of GHG exchange and isotopic signals using automated chambers.

  • WP1: Effects of mesoscale circulations on biosphere—atmosphere exchange processes
  • WP2: Trace gas budgets in the nocturnal boundary layer for mesoscale model evaluation
  • WP3: Patterns of precipitation and soil moisture from site to regional scale
  • WP4: Capability of digital/hyperspectral imagery to scale canopy traits of ecosystem function
  • WP5: Closure of atmospheric water and energy cycles
  • WP6: Distributed modeling of energy, water, carbon and nutrient cycles from local to regional scales

The campaign at TERENO observatory Fendt involved partner institutes and KIT researchers.

The impact of complex terrain on biosphere—atmosphere exchange processes
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Photo: M Zeeman

Development of tripple Doppler-lidar routines for remote sensing of wind fields up to 1 km.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Observation of wind field and air temperature patterns across the valley floor.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Farm methane flux estimation, using open-path sensors and a BLS model approach (WindTrax).

Trace gas budgets in the nocturnal boundary layer for mesoscale model evaluation
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Methane concentration profiles, extended in height using UAVs.

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Methane concentrations near the surface at two locations.

Patterns of precipitation and soil moisture from site to regional scale

Capability of digital/hyperspectral imagery to scale canopy traits of ecosystem function
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Photo: M Zeeman

Weekly sampling of canopy traits at the pre-alpine observatories.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Determination of plant species and plant functional groups.

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Photo: M Zeeman

Plant biomass, area and height; compared to EC-based fluxes.

Closure of atmospheric water and energy cycles

Distributed modeling of energy, water, carbon and nutrient cycles from local to regional scales

Partners

More than 65 researchers, from 20 groups in research and industry, teamed up for ScaleX.

Publications

Refereed Journal Articles

Attribution of N2O sources in a grassland soil with laser spectroscopy based isotopocule analysis
Erkan Ibraim, Benjamin Wolf, Eliza Harris, Rainer Gasche, Jing Wei, Longfei Yu, Ralf Kiese, Sarah Eggleston, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Matthias Zeeman, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Stephan Henne, and Joachim Mohn, Biogeosciences Discussions (submitted)
Productivity and vegetation structure of three differently managed temperate grasslands
Matthias Zeeman, Heather Shupe, Cornelia Baessler, and Nadine Ruehr, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (accepted)
Synergies for Soil Moisture Retrieval Across Scales from Airborne Polarimetric SAR, Cosmic-Ray Neutron Roving, and an In Situ Sensor Network
B. Fersch, T. Jagdhuber, M. Schrön, I. Völksch, and M. Jäger, Water Resources Research (2018)
On the calculation of daytime CO2 fluxes measured by automated closed transparent chambers
Peng Zhao, Albin Hammerle, Matthias Zeeman, and Georg Wohlfahrt, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 263 (2018)
The TERENO Pre-Alpine Observatory: Integrating Meteorological, Hydrological, and Biogeochemical Measurements and Modeling
R. Kiese, B. Fersch, C. Baessler, C. Brosy, K. Butterbach-Bahl, C. Chwala, M. Dannenmann, J. Fu, R. Gasche, R. Grote, C. Jahn, J. Klatt, H. Kunstmann, M. Mauder, T. Rödiger, G. Smiatek, M. Soltani, R. Steinbrecher, I. Völksch, J. Werhahn, B. Wolf, M. Zeeman, and H.P. Schmid, Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1):0 (2018)
Estimation of evapotranspiration of temperate grassland based on high-resolution thermal and visible range imagery from unmanned aerial systems
Claire Brenner, Matthias Zeeman, Matthias Bernhardt, and Karsten Schulz, International Journal of Remote Sensing (2018)
Field intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometers
Matthias Mauder and Matthias J. Zeeman, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11(1):249-263 (2018)
The SCALEX Campaign: Scale-Crossing Land Surface and Boundary Layer Processes in the TERENO-preAlpine Observatory
B. Wolf, C. Chwala, B. Fersch, J. Garvelmann, W. Junkermann, M. J. Zeeman, A. Angerer, B. Adler, C. Beck, C. Brosy, P. Brugger, S. Emeis, M. Dannenmann, F. De Roo, E. Diaz-Pines, E. Haas, M. Hagen, I. Hajnsek, J. Jacobeit, T. Jagdhuber, N. Kalthoff, R. Kiese, H. Kunstmann, O. Kosak, R. Krieg, C. Malchow, M. Mauder, R. Merz, C. Notarnicola, A. Philipp, W. Reif, S. Reineke, T. Rödiger, N. Ruehr, K. Schäfer, M. Schrön, A. Senatore, H. Shupe, I. Völksch, C. Wanninger, S. Zacharias, and H. P. Schmid, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98(6):1217-1234 (2017)
Lightweight mid-infrared methane sensor for unmanned aerial systems
Levi M. Golston, Lei Tao, Caroline Brosy, Klaus Schäfer, Benjamin Wolf, James McSpiritt, Bernhard Buchholz, Dana R. Caulton, Da Pan, Mark A. Zondlo, David Yoel, Harald Kunstmann, and Marty McGregor, Applied Physics B, 123(6) (2017)
Simultaneous multicopter-based air sampling and sensing of meteorological variables
Caroline Brosy, Karina Krampf, Matthias Zeeman, Benjamin Wolf, Wolfgang Junkermann, Klaus Schäfer, Stefan Emeis, and Harald Kunstmann, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 10(8):2773-2784 (2017)

Theses

Räumlich hochaufgelöste Niederschlagsmessung und hydrologische Modellierung: Performanzanalyse im Rahmen der ScaleX Messkampagne
Ulla Schlenk, University of Augsburg, Masters's Thesis. Advisory by Prof. Dr. Harald Kunstmann, Dr. Christian Chwala and Dr. Benjamin Fersch. (2017)
The ScaleX precipitation variability campaign: setup and joint analysis of rain gauge and radar data
Svenja Reineke, University of Augsburg, Masters's Thesis. Advisory by Prof. Dr. Kunstmann and Dr. Christian Chwala (2016)
Räumlich verteilte Temperaturmessungen in der Mikrometeorologie
Kevin Wolz, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Bachelor's Thesis. Advisory by Dr. Matthias Mauder and Dr. Matthias Zeeman. (2016)
Quantifizierung der Methan-Emissionen eines landwirtschaftlichen Betriebes mittels inverser Modellierung
Stefanie Breunig, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Bachelor's Thesis. Advisory by Dr. Matthias Mauder and Dr. Matthias Zeeman. (2016)
Comparing Aboveground Vegetation Parameters, Productivity, and Eddy Covariance Observations at Three Subalpine Grasslands
Heather A. Shupe, Technical University of Munich, Masters's Thesis. Advisory by Prof. Dr. Michael Leuchner, Dr. Nadine Ruehr and Dr. Matthias Zeeman. (2016)

Conference Proceedings

WRF-LES simulations of real episodes in complex terrain and comparison with height-resolving ground-based remote sensing data
Cornelius Hald, Matthias Mauder, Patrick Laux, Matthias Zeeman, and Harald Kunstmann, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2018)
Nocturnal boundary layer budgets of carbon dioxide enabled by unmanned aircraft
Martin Kunz, Jost V. Lavric, Rainer Gasche, Christoph Gerbig, Richard H. Grant, Frank-Thomas Koch, Marcus Schumacher, Benjamin Wolf, and Matthias Zeeman, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2018)
The soil moisture – precipitation feedback in Southern Germany during the ScaleX field campaign
Maximilian Graf, Benjamin Fersch, Joel Arnault, and Harald Kunstmann, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2018)
Using site specific N2O isotopic measurements to improve the process based biogeochemical model LandscapeDNDC
Benjamin Wolf, Tobias Denk, Erkan Ibraim, Joachim Mohn, David Kraus, Ralf Kiese, and Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2018)
Disentangling N2O emitting source processes with field-scale online measurements of the four most abundant N2O isotopocules
Erkan Ibraim, Tobias Denk, Longfei Yu, Stephan Henne, Eliza Harris, Matti Barthel, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ralf Kiese, Benjamin Wolf, and Joachim Mohn, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2018)
Distributed sounding of the boundary layer using multiple unmanned aerial systems during the ScaleX campaign 2016
Andreas Philipp, Erik Petersen, Alexander Groos, Pia Ferenci, Stefan Engerer, Benedikt Fiedler, Stefan Emeis, Klaus Schäfer, Caroline Brosy, Matthias Zeeman, and Jucundus Jacobeit, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2017)
Investigating Impacts of the Wind Field and Unknown Flying Objects on High-Res Ceilometer Profiles during ScaleX 2016
Christoph Münkel, K. Schäfer, and M. J. Zeeman, in 97th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting. (2017)
Spatial and temporal variability of hydrometeorological variables based on UAV measurements
Caroline Brosy, Karina Krampf, Wolfgang Junkermann, Stefan Emeis, Klaus Schäfer, Ingo Völksch, and Harald Kunstmann, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2017)
Don’t blame it on the precipitation input: A hydrological modeling case study with a very dense and redundant rain gauge network in southern Germany
Christian Chwala, Ulla Schlenk, Benjamin Fersch, and Harald Kunstmann, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2017)
Cross-compartment evaluation of a fully-coupled hydrometeorological modeling system using comprehensive observation data
Benjamin Fersch, Alfonso Senatore, and Harald Kunstmann, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2017)
High-resolution WRF-LES simulations for real episodes: A case study for prealpine terrain
Cornelius Hald, Matthias Mauder, Patrick Laux, and Harald Kunstmann, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2017)
Investigation of the spatial variability and possible origins of wind-induced air pressure fluctuations responsible for pressure pumping
Manuel Mohr, Thomas Laemmel, Martin Maier, Matthias Zeeman, Bernard Longdoz, and Dirk Schindler, in Geophysical Research Abstracts. (2017)
Methane distributions and transports in the nocturnal boundary layer at a rural station
Klaus Schäfer, Matthias Zeeman, Caroline Brosy, Christoph Münkel, Benjamin Fersch, Matthias Mauder, and Stefan Emeis, in Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXI. (2016)
Field Intercomparison of Six Different Three-Dimensional Sonic Anemometers
Matthias Mauder and Matthias Zeeman, in AGU Fall Meeting. (2016)
Atmospheric Profiles of Carbon Dioxide Obtained with a UAS: Constraints on Square Kilometre Scale Carbon Budgets
Martin Kunz, Jost Valentin Lavric, Richard H Grant, Christoph Gerbig, Martin Heimann, John Evan Flatt, Matthias J Zeeman, and Benjamin Wolf, in AGU Fall Meeting. (2016)
Investigating the Interdependencies of the Energy Balance Closure and the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget
Tirtha Banerjee, Matthias J Zeeman, Frederik De Roo, Peter Brugger, and Matthias Mauder, in AGU Fall Meeting. (2016)
Multi-Scale Observation and Modelling of Energy and Matter Exchange in the Atmospheric Boundary-Layer (ScaleX Campaigns)
Kevin Wolz, Bianca Adler, Claire Brenner, Frederik De Roo, Stefan Emeis, Norbert Kalthoff, Matthias Mauder, Klaus Schäfer, Georg Wohlfahrt, Peng Zhao, and Matthias J Zeeman, in AGU Fall Meeting. (2016)
Analysis of Atmospheric Flow in Mountainous Terrain Using Multi-Scale Observations and Dimension-Reduction Techniques
Matthias J Zeeman, Tirtha Banerjee, Danijel Belusic, Peter Brugger, Matthias Mauder, and Nikki Vercauteren, in AGU Fall Meeting. (2016)
Evaluation of scan-patterns for a triple Doppler lidar setup
M. J. Zeeman, P. Brugger, and M. Mauder, in Kurzfassungen der Meteorologentagung DACH. (2016)
Boundary layer dynamics in a small shallow valley near the Alps (ScaleX campaign)
M. J. Zeeman, B. Adler, T. Banerjee, P. Brugger, F. De Roo, S. Emeis, M. Mauder, K. Schaefer, H. P. Schmid, and B. Wolf, in Kurzfassungen der Meteorologentagung DACH. (2016)
Combining in-situ and ground-based remote sensing observation: how to connect the dots?
M. J. Zeeman, T. Banerjee, D. Belusic, P. Brugger, M. Mauder, H. P. Schmid, and N. Vercauteren, in Kurzfassungen der Meteorologentagung DACH. (2016)

Contact

Inquiries about ScaleX can be sent to the coordinator, currently Matthias Zeeman of KIT IMK-IFU.

About

The ScaleX campaigns in the TERENO—preAlpine observatory were designed to address an overarching research question:

How well can our observations constrain modeling uncertainties of biogeochemical cycles,
and close the balances of energy and matter flows?

The TERENO (TERrestrial ENvironmental Observatories) network is a large-scale integrative observation program designed to determine the long-term ecological and climatic impact of global environmental change at regional scales.

The TERENO—preAlpine observatory in mountainous terrain of Bavaria, Germany, includes three core grassland sites at different elevations (600, 750 and 860 m a.s.l), at which surface exchange fluxes are observed by eddy-covariance, lysimeters and chamber system clusters. The site arrangement represents a climatic gradient. Specific to the Fendt site is the addition of a hydro-meteorological observation network.

ScaleX was initiated by KIT IMK-IFU under direction of HaPe Schmid. Benjamin Wolf coordinated ScaleX until Feb 2016.